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About ultrapure animal-free chitosan

Ultrapure chitosan is a well-known biopolymer that has been used in a wide array of biomedical applications. It has been both mastered and appreciated by a number of renowned scientists and is now being marketed for certain indications, such as hemostats and cartilage repair.

This strong enabling biomaterial not only adds more valuable and safer clinical efficiency to innovative therapies but also offers medical and pharmaceutical companies the possibility of differentiating their final products.

Qualities

Our ultrapure chitosan features ultra purity, outstanding traceability and has tightly controlled molecular characteristics, namely molecular weight and degree of acetylation. Thanks to its high safety profile, reproducibility and its comprehensive documentation, our chitosan features remarkable, tunable molecular characteristics and properties. This in turn opens up many opportunities in terms of producing highly specific customized products and formulations.

Our animal-free ultrapure chitosan has controlled and consistent molecular characteristics and outstanding purity. Together, these factors will guarantee the high performance and safety of your formulations and products.

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Hemostatic properties

The amount of blood absorbed (mL) per 10 mg of a tested sample at intervals of five, fifteen and thirty minutes by a chitosan-based foam and a collagen-based commercial foam.

Chitosan-based foam shows a maximum blood absorption (0.16mL of blood for 10 mg of foam) after only five minutes. The absorption kinetic is better than that of collagen-based commercial foam, which reaches the same amount of blood absorbed after thirty minutes.

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Hemostatic properties

Platelet aggregation of a suspension of platelets in the presence of 1) chitosan, 2) collagen and 3) without inductor (control).

Chitosan-based foam induces a rapid coagulation of blood, which forms a “gelated” clot in less than four minutes.

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Tunable molecular characteristics

Apparent viscosity of chitosan solutions of four different molecular weights (dark blue: 173k – 136k – 88k – light green: 43k) versus chitosan concentration.

The apparent viscosity of chitosan in 1% acetic acid increases exponentially with polymer concentration. The increase of viscosity with the concentration is much more pronounced for higher molecular weight chitosan than it is for lower molecular weight chitosan.

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Antimicrobial effect

Viability (CFU/g) of microorganisms in contact with a chitosan-based formulation after 1, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days.

After 28 days, the viability of all microorganisms decreases by approximately five log-phases as a result of the presence of chitosan. The efficacy of chitosan in terms of antimicrobial properties is the fastest in the case of Candidia albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

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Bio & mucoadhesive properties

Adhesiveness and repositionability of ham glued to a glass plate with a chitosan-based formulation and a fibrin glue.

The force required to separate the supports is relatively speaking equivalent with the chitosan-based formulation and the fibrin glue five minutes after the first contact.

However, five minutes after contacting a second time, only the chitosan-based adhesive composition continues to have an effect of gluing together the supports.

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Bio & mucoadhesive properties

SEM micrography of  fibroblasts cultivated for 7 days on polyl-L-lactide (PLLA) microcarriers  modified in surface with chitosan (with courtesy of Privalova A et al.).

Compared to control PLLA microcarriers coated with polyvinyalcohol, chitosan promotes adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts.

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G5-Tunable-biodegradationok

Tunable biodegradation

In vitro biodegradation kinetics of chitosan-based tubes in saliva at 37°C.

Chitosan is degraded by enzymatic hydrolysis and selectively catalyzed by lysozymes into soluble oligomers and further into glucosamine metabolites. Lyzozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) catalyzes hydrolysis of 1.4-beta-linkages between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues. Lysozyme is abundant in a number of secretions, such as tears, saliva, human milk and mucus. It is also present in blood, cytoplasmic granules of the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs).

The degradation time usually varies between from a few weeks to a few months. This depends on chitosan characteristics, the formulation and the implantation site. In particular, the rule tends to be the higher the DA, the faster the biodegradation rate. Chitosan-based devices can be customized in order to reach the desired biodegradation rate. As an example, the biodegradation kinetics of chitosan-based tubes was followed in human saliva at 37°C. These tubes are part of a two layer prosthesis designed to act as a scaffold for the repair of tubular organs such as the esophagus, which in the case of cancer is to be implanted after the resection of the esophagus, in place of the non-degradable polyethylene tubes. This technology is patented (WO2009/027537, EP2180906, US2011/0035023) and at the 28 day mark, the implant starts to erode and becomes less resistant.

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